Heimer Engineering New York pre-purchase home, building, condo, and co‑op inspection

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Damage Caused by Construction
at an Adjoining Building

Expert Witness Services for Plaintiffs. Licensed Engineers serving Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, Bronx, Staten Island, Nassau, Suffolk, Rockland, Putnam, and Westchester

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When constructing a building, care must be taken to protect adjoining buildings.When constructing a building, care must be taken to protect adjoining buildings. This is especially critical in the City of New York, where there are many attached buildings. The City and State of New York have specific building code requirements for how adjoining buildings are to be protected. Despite all the protections in place, buildings sometimes suffer damage.

In many cases, building codes are ignored by contractors trying to complete a job quickly. Sometimes, the affect is a simple as a few cosmetic cracks. In other cases, serious structural or foundation damage occurs.

In performing investigations of damage caused by adjacent construction, Heimer Engineering's Professional Engineers analyze the building and assess the damage.In performing investigations of damage caused by adjacent construction, Heimer Engineering's Licensed Engineers analyze the building and assess the damage. If appropriate, photographs or measurements are taken to document the conditions at the site. The scope of the damage is determined, and a report is prepared.

After examining the site, a report is prepared describing the conditions at the site, the cause of the damage, and the code and reference standard violated. The reports are clearly written and help all parties understand the scope and cause of the damage.

There may be violations of City of New York Building Code or the State of New York Building Code. Code violations are included in the reports, where applicable.

State of New York Licensed Engineers

Building Codes and
Engineering Standards

Codes, regulations, and standards change over time, and modifications are made to existing buildings and sites.It is important to accurately determine which building codes (and other codes, regulations, and standards) are applicable to a specific incident. When a building is constructed, it is constructed under the codes, regulations, and standards are in force in the municipality at the time of construction.

Heimer Engineering has
an Extensive Library of
Historical Building Codes

Codes, regulations, and standards change over time, and modifications are made to existing buildings and sites. It is important to examine the history of the building to determine what codes, standards, and regulations are applicable. The Engineer's report should be based on applicable codes, regulations, and standards.

The term "grandfathered" is often applied to existing construction. Saying a building is "grandfathered" is often inaccurate. The term "grandfathered" only applies to original and unaltered construction. "Grandfathering" requires that no changes were made without required permits and approvals. Once a change is made to a building, newer building codes, standards, and municipal regulations become applicable. For example, making a change to the interior of a building might require that exterior steps be brought up to modern codes.

Heimer Engineering has an extensive library of searchable historical building codes, dating back 90 years for The State of New York and over 140 years for The City of New York. We also have electronic access to hundreds of current state, town, and village codes.

Just because a building
complied with the applicable
codes at the time it was
constructed  does not mean that
hazardous defects are permitted.

Even if the building or site is unaltered, it may not have complied with the codes, standards, and regulations in effect at the time the building was constructedEven if the building or site is unaltered, it may not have complied with the codes, standards, and regulations in effect at the time the building was constructed. Many older codes, standards, and regulations are not as clearly written as their more modern counterparts.

The Engineer needs to consider both the wording and the correct application of the code, standard, or regulation. In addition, the injury may have been caused by faulty maintenance, which is covered under modern codes.

Just because a building complied with the applicable codes at the time it was constructed does not mean hazardous defects are permitted. Failing to maintain a building or site in a safe condition is never "grandfathered".

Proximate Cause

When examining a site or building where a personal injury accident occurred, it is important to determine the proximate cause of the accident that resulted in the personal injury.Proximate cause is often defined as the immediate or closest cause. When examining a site or building where a personal injury accident occurred, it is important to determine the proximate cause of the accident.

We have seen many reports where defects were cited, but are irrelevant to the accident that caused the injury. For example, if a client fell at the top of a set of steps, defects near the bottom of the steps are irrelevant.

Unfortunately, there are many experts who look to find any defect and never determine if it is the proximate cause of the accident. Heimer Engineering only includes relevant facts in the reports. Engineering reports that include irrelevant code violations may look good, but these reports can be defeated in summary judgment because the cited defects are irrelevant to the incident.

De Minimis Defects

A de minimis defect is a small defect that a defendant is arguing is too small to be considered as the cause of an injury.De minimis means too trivial or unimportant to be considered. A de minimis defect is a defect that a defendant is arguing is too small to be considered as the cause of the accident and injury.

Who decides if a defect is de minimis?  Is it decided by the Attorneys, the law, or the Engineer?  Engineers need to take into account whether a defect is de minimis in determining the proximate cause of an accident and subsequent injury. It a Professional Engineer determines that a defect is the proximate cause of an injury, then it is axiomatic that the defect is not de minimis.

Foreseeable Incidents and Reasonable Care

The cause of injury is often the defendant's failure to use reasonable care in the maintenance or repair of a building. Engineers need to look at the site conditions, and determine if the owners created a hazard by failing  to use reasonable care. It is also important to determine if it is foreseeable that the condition could cause an injury.

"Old School" Engineers

Older Engineers worked according to rules and standards they created on an as-needed basis.After World War II, Engineering moved from war-related work to developing products for consumers and of national interest (such as the space program). There were few universally accepted standards other than building codes and mechanical standards (for example, screw sizes or wire sizes). Many Engineers who graduated before the mid-1970s were used to creating their own standards, and possibly changing these standards from project to project. These "Old School" Engineers worked according to rules and standards created on an as-needed basis.

Although organizations such as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) began developing standards after World War I, many of these standards did not aquire the force of law until the 1960s when were incorporated into Building Codes. In addition, organizations such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) set and enforced standards. At the same time, organizations such as ANSI and the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) set standards that were universally followed.

Some of the "Old School" Engineers retired from their full-time employment and went on to be consulting Engineers. The problem is that they continued to analyze the way they worked in the past. These Engineers approached accident investigations the same way they had worked their whole life. The result was reports that reflected the Engineer's standards or the Engineer's interpretation of Building Codes without regard to the realities of how the Department of Buildings interprets codes or accepted practices.

An example of the difference between old self-created standards universally accepted standards can be seen in the change in automobile safety in the last 50 years. In the late 1950s, automobile manufacturers began to talk about how safe their cars were. The standards for safety were set by automobile manufacturers. General Motors stated their cars had a "safety X-frame" in advertising. People bought these "safe" cars.

The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety released a video in 2009 that showed a frontal offset collision between a 1959 Chevrolet Impala and a 2009 Chevrolet Malibu. Analysis after the collision showed that the driver of the 1959 Impala would have died instantly, and the driver of the 2009 Chevrolet Malibu might have sustained a knee injury.

Collision between a 1959 Chevrolet Impala and a 2009 Chevrolet Malibu

This video illustrates the difference between self-defined standards and universally developed and accepted standards. By the self-defined standards of 1959, the Impala was "safe". By today's universally accepted standards, the 1959 Impala offers little safety.

When choosing a Professional Engineer, be careful of Engineers who define their own standards. While they may sound good, they will hold up no better under cross-examination based on today's standards than the 1959 Chevrolet Impala held up against the 2009 Chevrolet Malibu.

Engineer Experts or Hired Guns?

Some expert witnesses are "hired guns". These experts provide a report in favor of their client regardless of the facts. Heimer Engineering's Engineers never exaggerate or embellish their findings. If there is no defect, that is what we report. There are Attorneys who will never use Heimer Engineering's services because we do not embellish the reports in favor of their clients.

Heimer Engineering never
exaggerates or embellishes findings

Some experts do whatever the Attorney asks them to do, and never bother to evaluate the situationSome experts do whatever the Attorney asks them to do, and never bother to evaluate the situation. Heimer Engineering evaluates the information provided and advises, based on Engineering experience, as to what defects exist and the cause of the accident. As an Attorney, you will be provided our professional opinion so that you know how to proceed with the litigation.

Embellishing a report or relying on a code reference that is not applicable sometimes works if the insurance company settles based on an exaggerated report. In other cases, the expert's statements in the inaccurate embellished report cannot stand up to summary judgment or under cross-examination in a Court of Law. With Heimer Engineering, you can be sure you are receiving a professional opinion based on the facts as provided to the Engineer. Heimer Engineering will be able to defend the Engineer's report under cross examination.

Heimer Engineering never
provides reports based on
codes that are not applicable

Accident or Incident

Accident or IncidentAccident has no clear meaning. An accident could be an injury caused by a property owner's negligence. An accident could be a mistake by the injured party. An accident could be caused by a contractor's negligence. There are many potential caused of an accident.

Heimer Engineering's Professional Engineers evaluate incidents. Someone is injured, and that is the incident. It is only after the incident is evaluated that negligence can be established.

When an incident is evaluated, there is no pre-conceived notion of who is negligent. The incident is evaluated from an unbiased point of view, including the application of Engineering principles. Only after all the facts related to the incident are determined can negligence and blame be determined.

Expert Witness Court Testimony
by Professional Engineers

Clearly written reports help make it clear how defects at a site contributed to an accident and injury.Clearly written reports help make it clear how defects at a site contributed to an accident and injury. Clearly written accurate reports can help you settle a case and avoid the time and expense of a trial.

If the case has to be litigated in a court of law, Heimer Engineering's Professional Engineers serve as expert witnesses, and have qualified as expert witnesses in United States Federal Courts and at all levels of State of New York Courts.

For questions regarding Professional Engineer expert witness services, call 631.820.4500.

Professional Engineer Expert Witness Services

Contact Heimer Engineering℠

Call for a Home InspectionHeimer Engineering New York pre-purchase home, building, condo, and co‑op inspectionsHeimer Engineering℠ is happy to help you. Senior Staff members are available Monday through Friday from 9 AM to 5 PM.  After 5 PM, please leave a message. Messages are checked during the day on Sunday, and Sunday evening through Thursday evening. Inspections are performed seven days a week.

Heimer Engineering's℠ inspection fees are competitive with non-Engineer's fees, especially when you consider that many non-Engineers charge extra for termite inspections, swimming pools, etc.

Inspection orders are taken by senior staff members. A real estate purchase is complex and you should be able to speak with someone who can answer your inspection questions.

To set up an appointment for a pre-purchase inspection or to find out about Engineering services or expert court testimony email Info@heimer.com, text 888.769.6910, or call 800.605.1500. If no staff member is in the office, leave a message.

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Heimer Engineering℠ respects your privacy. Some home inspection firms share information with insurance, landscaping, home maintenance, moving, cable, mortgage, and other companies. You will not receive phone calls or solicitation emails from third parties as a result of providing us with personal information. For more information, see our Privacy Policy.

Call 911In the event of a life-threatening emergency call 911. Emergency situations need to be handled by first-responders who can evacuate buildings, shut utilities off, and take other steps necessary to preserve life.

Standards of Practice
and Code of Ethics

Our Licensed Engineers substantially adhere to the InterNACHI® Code of Ethics, to Subpart 197-4 of the State of New York Code of Ethics and Regulations for Home Inspectors, the ASHI® Standards of Practice, and the National Society of Professional Engineers (NSPE®) Code of Ethics. In the event of a  conflict, the Licensed Engineer uses Engineering judgment to decide what standard or Engineering principle takes precedence. All State of New York Licensed Engineers are bound by New York State Education Law Article 145.


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Inspections are performed only after the client signs a Pre-Inspection Agreement. Use of this website is governed by our Terms of Use. This website is made available for informational purposes and does not represent a professional opinion of your situation.

Heimer Engineering℠ performs home inspections, building inspections, condo inspections, and co-op inspections in the State of New York. Expert witness services are provided regarding playground injuries, parking lot, walkway, and stairway slip, trip, and fall.

The Heimer Engineering℠ website was designed and is maintained by Harold Krongelb PE. The contents of this website were written by Harold Krongelb P.E. This website is not intended to offer Engineering opinions or advice. Sitemaps and indexing information can be found at Page Sitemap, Image Sitemap, Mobile Sitemap, and Video Sitemap.

©1997-2018 Andrea and Harold Krongelb. All rights reserved. Used under license by Heimer Engineering PC.

Heimer Engineering PC
f/k/a Richard L Heimer PE PC
2171 Jericho Turnpike, Suite 230
Commack, New York, USA 11725-2947

New York Metro: 800.605.1500
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